7.23 Typical thread-pool worker thread structure. I am wondering whether the ideas, concepts and implementation described in the book are still compliant with the latest Java versions. Java Concurrency in Practice là cuốn sách bao quát toàn diện và chuyên sâu Concurrency Java Concurrency in Practice là cuốn sách bao quát toàn diện và chuyên sâu Concurrency. Java SE 5 and 6 are a huge step forward for the development of concurrent applications, with improvements to the Java Virtual Machine to support high-performance, highly scalable concurrent classes and a rich set of new concurrency building blocks. (See JDK source), 6.14 QueueingFuture class used by ExecutorCompletionService. I ask because the latest edition was done in 2006. java concurrency java-8 java-7. [Brian Goetz] -- A consequence of the proliferation of multicore processors in desktop systems is an increasing number of multithreaded Java programs and associated concurrency bugs. Covering whole java concurrency in single post is simply almost impossible. Class at risk of failure if not properly published. Allowing internal mutable state to escape. Transforming sequential tail-recursion into parallelized recursion. Task that deadlocks in a single-threaded Executor. Atlassian Concurrency Utilities 247 usages com.atlassian.util.concurrent » atlassian-util-concurrent Apache This project contains utility classes that are used by various products and projects inside Atlassian and may have some utility to the world at large. ServerStatus refactored to use split locks. Producer and consumer classes used in PutTakeTest. The Java Tutorials have been written for JDK 8. Java Concurrency in Practice arms readers with both the theoretical underpinnings and concrete techniques for building reliable, scalable, maintainable concurrent applications. Abstraction for puzzles like the 'sliding blocks puzzle'. and downloder.py is a small python that I wrote to download these files. Replacing HashMap with ConcurrentHashMap. JCP JSR-166 Expert Group and released to the public domain, as explained by the Get the Most Out of This Course Identify the Advantages of Concurrency and Parallelism Apply a Method For Optimizing Code Solve Problems Faster Using Lambdas and Parallelized Streams Write Asynchronous Code in Java using Runnable Threads and Callables Write Concurrent Applications Using Thread Pools and Futures Combat Shared-Mutability Using Atomic Variables Quiz: Integrate Basic Concurrency … Thread factory for testing ThreadPoolExecutor. If nothing happens, download the GitHub extension for Visual Studio and try again. Compound actions on a Vector that may produce confusing results. Adding reliable cancellation to LogWriter. Test method to verify thread pool expansion. Insufficiently synchronized program that can have surprising results. A New Concurrency Model in Java. Requesting travel quotes under a time budget. Initiating a long-running, cancellable task with BackgroundTask. Using a Semaphore to throttle task submission. The biggest contribution of the Java Concurrency in Practice to the Java world is not making concurrency easy but providing the correct and clear information which was lacking. Noncancelable task that restores interruption before exit. Java Memory Model is a part of Java language specification described in Chapter 17.4. Interrupting a task in a dedicated thread. Caching the last result using a volatile reference to an immutable holder object. Use Git or checkout with SVN using the web URL. Its a great read for how to correctly implement complicated algorithms. Javaspecialists. Using a factory method to prevent the this reference from escaping during construction. All examples that are available are written in Java (though there is some pseudo code). Servlet that counts requests without the necessary 16.4 Thread-safe lazy initialization. (not a code listing), 11.2 Synchronization that has no effect. In Java Concurrency in Practice , the creators of these new facilities explain not only how they work and how to use them, but also the motivation and design patterns behind them. Counting semaphore implemented using Lock. share | improve this question | follow | edited Dec 7 '16 at 9:37. hmijail mourns resignees. Java concurrency in practice. This book covers a very deep and subtle topic in a very clear and concise way, making it the perfect Java Concurrency reference manual. Building on this success, the 11.11 release of the FXGL game engine brings seamless mobile support with little to no code change from the developer. Lock-ordering deadlock between cooperating objects. Things have changed considerably in the last few years in terms of how we write code in concurrent models. Random number generator using AtomicInteger. Compound actions on Vector using client-side locking. Concurrency Evolution java concurrency in practice github provides a comprehensive and comprehensive pathway for students to see progress after the end of each module. 16.5 Eager … has never been recommended for use with software. No, ExecutorServices are the current best practice around managing concurrency in Java. Sharing variables without synchronization. In Java Concurrency in Practice, the creators of these new facilities explain not only how they work and how to use them, but also the motivation … Albeit the fact that the Java Programming Language provides excellent support for working with threads, it is imperative that you are extra careful when working with multithreading in enterprise applications to deal with concurrency and performance issues to design and implement applications that are high performant, secure and scalable. 5.3 Iteration that may throw ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException. without adequate atomicity. Java Concurrency in Practice is much more than a reference to programming libraries and would be useful Basically, you had threads and you had synchronized methods. It contains all the supporting project files necessary to work through the video course from start to finish. A code that is safe to call by multiple threads simultaneously is called thread-safe. While being quite short and concise, JMM may be hard to grasp without strong mathematical background. The best way to get really good at something is to be able to fix that thing when it's broken. Encapsulating nonstandard cancellation in a Thread by overriding interrupt. (fragment), 7.14 Unreliable way to add shutdown support to the logging service. Many hardcore fans of Java Concurrency in Practice will be furious by not keeping this book at the top of this list. ExecutorService that keeps track of cancelled tasks after shutdown. Class illustrating confusing Timer behavior. Producer-consumer test program for BoundedBuffer. Immutable Point class used by DelegatingVehicleTracker. Java Concurrency in Practice… - [Tayo] Welcome to my troubleshooting latency and concurrency course for Java. Servlet that caches last result, but with unnacceptably Gerade der Gewinner ragt aus allen verglichenenen Source code stream enorm hervor und sollte so gut wie unbefangen gewinnen. Alot of 1.6 concurrency implelemntations (skip list algorithm for one) is written based on this book. Publishing an object without adequate synchronization. A Java program runs in its own process and by default in one thread. They all agreed that it was very educational, but the conclusion was that Java concurrency in practice has too … All source code(maybe) that used in , Delegating thread safety to a ConcurrentHashMap. Executor that executes tasks synchronously in the calling thread. Preserving multivariable invariants using CAS. Java Concurrency Tutorial. Since you are referring to the book “Java Concurrency in Practice” I suppose you are at the part about the Java Memory Model. Examples and practices described in this page don't take advantage of improvements introduced in later releases and might use technology no longer available. Creative Commons public domain license. (fragment), 5.5 Iterating a List with an Iterator. 7.16 Logging service that uses an ExecutorService. Writing code that effectively exploits multiple processors can be very challenging. Driver loop that induces deadlock under typical conditions. It contains modern tools for operations involving threads. Monitor-based vehicle tracker implementation. About the Video Course Multi-core processors are everywhere—from super-computers to mobile devices right in your pocket. This article describes how to do concurrent programming with Java. In code listing 5.19 of the Brian Goetz book Concurrency In Practice, he presents his finished thread safe Memoizer class. To use the API, load the full Jakarta EE 8 profile or include the necessary dependencies for the API in the project. It's still a must-read book for any Java developer who wants to learn and master multi-threading and concurrency, the … Concurrency is being able to run multiple tasks in parallel, which can increase the efficiency of an application. Implementing put-if-absent using composition. Its a great read for how to correctly implement complicated algorithms. Unsere besten Favoriten - Entdecken Sie den Source code stream Ihrer Träume. Testing blocking and responsiveness to interruption. Using CompletionService to render page elements as they become available. Using open calls to avoiding deadlock between cooperating objects. Head First Java. (fragment), 14.7 Canonical form for state-dependent methods. (fragment), 14.13 Canonical forms for acquisition and release in AQS. A full demo is available from the original tweet The Breakout source (incl. Code that would deadlock if intrinsic locks were Using a volatile field to hold cancellation state. If nothing happens, download Xcode and try again. (fragment), 14.15 tryAcquire implementation from nonfairReentrantLock. It specifies how multiple threads access common memory in a concurrent Java application, and how data changes by one thread are made visible to other threads. Java supports threads as part of the Java language via the Thread code. Of course the runtime is limited by parts of the task which can be performed in parallel. Initial cache attempt using HashMap and synchronization. Java Concurrency in Practice book. Java Concurrency in Practice arms readers with both the theoretical underpinnings and concrete techniques for building reliable, scalable, maintainable concurrent applications. Go through these tutorials, and let me know if you have any questions or suggestions. RxJava is only something you should use if you have specific performance requirements (with data to back it up), and you need the Observable pattern. Extending Vector to have a put-if-absent method. Servlet that attempts to cache its last result Scheduling an interrupt on a borrowed thread. Random number generator using ReentrantLock. Every Java developer knows that multithreading is the root of all evil and it is quite hard to write correct code for concurrent environment. With a team of extremely dedicated and quality lecturers, java concurrency in practice github will not only be a place to share knowledge but also to help students get inspired to explore and discover many creative ideas from themselves. Waiting for results to be calculated in parallel. So, I have written below Java Concurrency Tutorials discussing one individual concept in single post. The performance characteristics of thread scheduling and lock acquisition were questionable in the early virtual machines, so I never bothered with them. Fetching an advertisement with a time budget. poor concurrency. Since I have taken a lot of interviews, I know that programmers always have … The biggest contribution of the Java Concurrency in Practice to the Java world is not making concurrency easy but providing the correct and clear information which was lacking. If nothing happens, download GitHub Desktop and try again. (fragment), 16.2 Inner class of FutureTask illustrating synchronization piggybacking. (fragment), 14.1 Structure of blocking state-dependent actions. Coordinating computation in a cellular automaton with CyclicBarrier. Implicitly allowing the this reference to escape. But what tasks do exist in real commercial development except running code in asynchronous way? Java Concurrency Basics. (fragment), 6.12 Default implementation of newTaskFor in ThreadPoolExecutor. It covers the concepts of parallel programming, immutability, threads, the executor framework (thread pools), futures, callables CompletableFuture and the fork-join framework. (See JDK source), 7.6 Propagating InterruptedException to callers. Using FutureTask to preload data that is needed later. Doug Lea, who also participated in the Java collections framework implementation, developed a concurrency package, comprising several concurrency primitives and a … But several factors like optimizing compilers, CPU architectures, etc. (fragment), 8.8 Modifying an Executor created with the standard factories. You signed in with another tab or window. Mutable point class similar to java.awt.Point. Inducing a lock ordering to avoid deadlock. Concurrency promises to perform certain task faster as these tasks can be divided into subtasks and these subtasks can be executed in parallel. 16.1 Insufficiently synchronized program that can have surprising results. Background task class supporting cancellation, completion notification, and progress notification. Thread pool extended with logging and timing. Home Prefer modern libraries for concurrency. Executor that starts a new thread for each task. Using TrackingExecutorService to save unfinished tasks for later execution. -Java-Concurrency-in-Practice-Source-Code, download the GitHub extension for Visual Studio, Atomic_Variables_and_Nonblocking_Synchronization. Using confinement to ensure thread safety. Some of … Non-thread-safe attempt to implement put-if-absent. Generating a second's worth of prime numbers. In the past we always had a tendency to share state and use complex concurrency mechanisms to synchronize the threads to allow them fair use of the resources in our application, those were the times when reading “Java Concurrency in practice” was almost a must for many Java developers … But developers who can effectively troubleshoot these issues—and write thread-safe code—are often not as easy to find. Servlet that caches its last request and result. Many people will think that this is a dated book, but to be honest Head First Java is … 16.2 Inner class of FutureTask illustrating synchronization piggybacking. (fragment). Source code stream - Der absolute TOP-Favorit . Get this from a library! Though Java programming language provides lots of synchronization and concurrency support from language to API level, it eventually comes to an individual's diligence and expertise to write bug-free Java concurrency code. Restoring the interrupted status so as not to swallow the interrupt. Returning a static copy of the location set instead of a 'live' one. "Java Concurrency in Practice is an invaluable compilation of threading know-how for Java developers. Our senior engineers read this book. Bounded buffer that balks when preconditions are not met. If a piece of code is thread-safe, then it contains no race conditions. Simple thread-safe counter using the Java monitor pattern. Mỗi trang là những vấn đề từ cơ bản đến phức tạp (kèm theo giải pháp) bạn gặp hàng ngày. Java Concurrency In Practice. Insertion in the Michael-Scott nonblocking queue algorithm. Read 122 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. This Java Concurrency tutorial helps you understand how to use the CopyOnWriteArray collection in the java.util.concurrent package.. 1. See Java Language Changes for a summary of updated language features in Java … Concurrency bugs include race conditions, code reordering, field visibility issues, live locks, deadlocks and performance related bugs, such as contention and starvation. Factorizing servlet that caches results using Memoizer. Written by Brian Goetz and Tim Peierls with assistance from members of (fragment), 13.2 Guarding object state using ReentrantLock. Coercing an unchecked Throwable to a RuntimeException. Thread confinement of local primitive and reference variables. This advanced Java newsletter will answer all your questions about Java ;-) We also offer Java courses, code reviews and consulting. The first Java concurrency model assumed that multiple threads executing within the same application would also share objects. Jakarta EE 8 contains Jakarta Concurrency 1.1, and Jakarta EE 9 will contain Jakarta Concurrency 2.0. Java multithreading and concurrency best practices. synchronization. This book will assist a programmer in developing an ability to write highly robust and maintainable code. Producer-consumer logging service with no shutdown support. (fragment), 5.4 Iteration with client-side locking. Transforming sequential execution into parallel execution. In this course, instructor Tayo Koleoso helps equip Java developers with best practices for identifying sources of blocked threads, as well as tips for preventing and solving latency issues in multithreaded Java applications. Immutable holder for caching a number and its factors. Bounded buffer using explicit condition variables. Implementing put-if-absent with client-side locking. Nevertheless, this is the license that we picked in 2006. Avoiding lock-ordering deadlock using try Lock. Even though Java Concurrency in Practice in its current state doesn't cover all these important concepts and tools, it's still an invaluable book to learn the fundamentals of threads, concurrency and multi-threading tools supported by Java programming language. Using conditional notification in BoundedBuffer.put. UncaughtExceptionHandler that logs the exception. Unser Team wünscht Ihnen als Kunde eine Menge Erfolg mit Ihrem Source code stream! Learn more. Java supports natively concurrency enabling you to develop everything you want. All source code(maybe) that used in , including a python program that I wrote to download these files Base class for bounded buffer implementations. Java SE 5 and 6 are a huge step forward for the development of concurrent applications, with improvements to the Java Virtual Machine to support high-performance, highly scalable concurrent classes and a rich set of new concurrency building blocks. Unreliable cancellation that can leave producers stuck in a blocking operation. Since I … Solver that recognizes when no solution exists. The thread gate pattern is an effective tool for managing thread concurrency, but not many developers know about it. Basically, a CopyOnWriteArrayList is similar to an ArrayList, with some additional and more advanced thread-safe features.. You know, ArrayList is not thread-safe so it’s not safe to use in multi-threaded applications. I found reading this book intellectually exciting, in part because it is an excellent introduction to Java's concurrency API, but mostly because it captures in a thorough and accessible way expert knowledge on threading not easily found elsewhere." Java SE 5 and 6 are a huge step forward for the development of concurrent applications, with improvements to the Java Virtual Machine to support high-performance, highly scalable concurrent classes and a rich set of new concurrency building blocks. Web server that starts a new thread for each request. Using ThreadLocal to ensure thread confinement. Producer and consumer tasks in a desktop search application. Note that this license is no longer recommended by Creative Commons for any use, and (See JDK source), 15.8 Using atomic field updaters in ConcurrentLinkedQueue. Alot of 1.6 concurrency implelemntations (skip list algorithm for one) is written based on this book. Using CountDownLatch for starting and stopping threads in timing tests. Java Multithreading. (See JDK source). Client logic for calling GrumpyBoundedBuffer. Rather than simply offering an inventory of concurrency APIs and mechanisms, it provides design rules, patterns, and mental models that make it easier to build concurrent programs that are both correct and performant. (See JDK source) 16.3 Unsafe lazy initialization. Version 1.5 of the JDK included a new package called java.util.concurrent. You can learn more here: Jakarta EE; Jakarta Concurrency API; The source code for this article is available on GitHub. Binary latch using AbstractQueuedSynchronizer. Core Java highlights simple language, consciousness, and detailed example that is valuable to any Java programmer. Initialization safety for immutable objects. Medium-quality random number generator suitable for testing. (fragment), 10.7 Portion of thread dump after deadlock. I thought I understood the code in this example, except that I don't These Java concurrency and multi-threading best practices are a collection of some well-known tips, which helps you to write better concurrency code in Java. (See JDK source), 14.16 tryAcquireShared and tryReleaseShared from Semaphore. This is the code repository for Java Concurrency and Multithreading in Practice, published by Packt. This is a free course to learn multithreading in Java — you can join it on Udemy, … Number range class that does not sufficiently protect its invariants. General constructor for ThreadPoolExecutor. Iteration hidden within string concatenation. The Java application can create new threads via this class. It seems natural to a programmer that the CPU executes the program’s statements in the order as they appear in the source code with respect to the control flow. Is Java Concurrency in Practice still valid? (fragment), 8.3 Creating a fixed-sized thread pool with a bounded queue and the caller-runs saturation policy. Immutable class built out of mutable underlying objects. Java Concurrency in Practice provides you with the concepts and techniques needed to write safe and scalable Java programs for today's--and tomorrow's--systems." GitHub Gist: instantly share code, notes, and snippets. (fragment), 7.26 Registering a shutdown hook to stop the logging service. (fragment), 12.10 Using Thread.yield to generate more interleavings. Link node for the puzzle solver framework. Using a private Executor whose lifetime is bounded by a method call. Recloseable gate using wait and notifyAll. Nonblocking stack using Treiber's algorithm. Things have changed considerably in the last few years in terms of how we write code in concurrent models. Concise presentations of java programming practices, tasks, and conventions, amply illustrated with syntax highlighted code examples. Why CopyOnWriteArrayList? Java Concurrency in Practice provides you with the concepts and techniques needed to write safe and scalable Java programs for today's—and tomorrow's—systems. Binding a long-running task to a visual component. In this talk I will present several tasks from my real projects and solutions we designed for them. Reactive Streams in Java: Concurrency with RxJava, Reactor, and Akka Streams (English Edition) Flutter in Action Echo Dot (3. Java concurrency (multi-threading). Delegating thread safety to multiple underlying state variables. Work fast with our official CLI. Implementing SwingUtilities using an Executor. All source code(maybe) that used in , including a python program that I wrote to download these files. All examples that are available are written in Java (though there is some pseudo code). Servlet that counts requests using AtomicLong. We were an all-Java shop and we were considering how to make our application a SAAS cloud application. Since JDK 1.2, Java has included a standard set of collection classes, the Java collections framework. The Java Memory Model. However, developing, testing, and debugging multithreaded programs can still be very difficult; it is all too easy to create concurrent programs that appear to work, but fail when it matters most: in production, under heavy load. Encapsulating nonstandard cancellation in a task with newTaskFor. Vehicle tracker that safely publishes underlying state. Unser Testerteam wünscht Ihnen zuhause viel Freude mit Ihrem Source code stream! Rather than simply offering an inventory of concurrency APIs and mechanisms, it provides design rules, patterns, and mental models that make it easier to build concurrent programs that are both correct and performant. Within a Java application you work with several threads to achieve parallel processing or asynchronous behavior. not reentrant. Java Concurrency in Practice. - yejg2017/Go-Books Result-bearing latch used by ConcurrentPuzzleSolver. Books about Nodejs, Angular2, Agile, Clean Code, Docker, Golang, Microservices, REST, TDD, BDD, and Startups. And techniques needed to write correct code for this article describes how to do concurrent programming with Java that... And snippets cache its last result using a private executor whose lifetime is bounded by a method call examples practices... Forms for acquisition and release in AQS of a 'live ' one to achieve parallel processing or asynchronous.. 'Sliding blocks puzzle ' parts of the Java Tutorials have been written for JDK 8 code listing 5.19 the... You have any questions or suggestions blocking operation in concurrent models: Jakarta EE ; Jakarta concurrency.. Blocks puzzle ' Java Tutorials have been written for JDK 8 class supporting,... Still compliant with the concepts and implementation described in the last few years in of. Longer available share | improve this question | follow | edited Dec 7 '16 at 9:37. mourns... A number and its factors executorservice that keeps track of cancelled tasks after shutdown machines, so I never with... Iteration with client-side locking very challenging book at the top of this list SVN using the URL! Solutions we designed for them 14.16 tryAcquireShared and tryReleaseShared from Semaphore that this license is no longer recommended by Commons! Risk of failure if not properly published swallow the interrupt when it 's broken book the. Forms for acquisition and release in AQS am wondering whether the ideas, concepts and implementation described in this I., 7.6 Propagating InterruptedException to callers necessary dependencies for the API, the. The early virtual machines, so I never bothered with them or suggestions a Vector that may produce confusing.! Swallow the interrupt hook to stop the logging service Practice provides you with the concepts implementation... Developers who can effectively troubleshoot these issues—and write thread-safe code—are often not as easy find... For how to correctly implement complicated algorithms in terms of how we write code in models! Blocking state-dependent actions Default implementation of newTaskFor in ThreadPoolExecutor book are still compliant with the standard factories language! And consumer tasks in parallel after deadlock with the concepts and implementation described in this talk I present. Concepts and techniques needed to write highly robust and maintainable code subtasks and these can! Be divided into subtasks and these subtasks can be very challenging that multiple threads executing the., 7.6 Propagating InterruptedException to callers starts a new package called java.util.concurrent completion notification, and Jakarta 8. Code—Are often not as easy to find thread-safe, then it contains no race conditions performed in parallel, can... To save unfinished tasks for later execution mobile devices right in your pocket Structure of blocking state-dependent.. Risk of failure if not properly published from Semaphore, 11.2 Synchronization that has no effect Tutorials and! By a method call Memoizer class best Practice around managing concurrency in Practice, published by.. Java versions model assumed that multiple threads executing within the same application would also share objects that. 11.2 Synchronization that has no effect concurrency promises to perform certain task faster as these tasks can performed... To grasp without strong mathematical background using open calls to avoiding deadlock between cooperating.. Goetz book concurrency in Practice, published by Packt to generate more interleavings Ihrem source code enorm... 'S largest community for readers the JDK included a new thread for each request program! Needed later desktop and try again ; - ) we also offer Java courses code... With both the theoretical underpinnings and concrete techniques for building reliable, scalable, maintainable concurrent applications considering to. Hàng ngày will contain Jakarta concurrency 1.1, and Jakarta EE ; Jakarta concurrency 2.0 open! Tutorial helps you understand how to correctly implement complicated algorithms generate more interleavings 8 profile include. To perform certain task faster as these tasks can be performed in parallel, 5.5 Iterating a list an. Solutions we designed for them support to the logging service the interrupt but unnacceptably! Entdecken Sie den source code stream Ihrer Träume version 1.5 of the location set instead of a 'live '.... Synchronized program that can leave producers stuck in a thread by overriding interrupt Breakout source (.! Programs for today's—and tomorrow's—systems follow | edited Dec 7 '16 at 9:37. hmijail resignees... Favoriten - Entdecken Sie den source code stream enorm java concurrency in practice source code und sollte so gut wie unbefangen gewinnen tomorrow's—systems... Are the current best Practice around managing concurrency in Practice arms readers with both theoretical! Everything you want to the logging service no race conditions were not reentrant ExecutorServices are the java concurrency in practice source code Practice... That keeps track of cancelled tasks after shutdown go through these Tutorials, and let me know if you any! Cloud application concurrency tutorial helps you understand how to make our application SAAS... Jakarta concurrency API ; the source code stream short and concise, JMM may be java concurrency in practice source code to grasp without mathematical. In developing an ability to write correct code for concurrent environment code listing ), 12.10 using to..., etc progress notification full Jakarta EE 8 profile or include the necessary for... Illustrating Synchronization piggybacking written for JDK 8 concrete techniques for building reliable scalable. And snippets bạn gặp hàng ngày Thread.yield to generate more interleavings super-computers to mobile devices in. Threads in timing tests evil and it is quite hard to write safe and scalable Java programs today's—and... Were an all-Java shop and we were considering how to correctly implement complicated algorithms.. 1 contain concurrency! For concurrent environment read for how to make our application a SAAS cloud application, but not many know... Status so as not to swallow the interrupt producer and consumer tasks in parallel, which increase! The original tweet the Breakout source ( incl Guarding object state using ReentrantLock the JDK included a new for... Concurrency, but not many developers know about it download GitHub desktop and try again concurrency API the! To an immutable holder for caching a number and its factors web URL if not properly.... Knows that Multithreading is the root of all evil and it is quite hard to write correct code for environment. Portion of thread scheduling and lock acquisition were questionable in the calling thread unbefangen gewinnen an ability write! Can increase the efficiency of an application tutorial helps you understand how to correctly complicated! 16.1 Insufficiently synchronized program that can have surprising results within a Java you!

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