Materials Tap water. Turbidity Alum Model. Initial turbidities of 10 and 50 NTU, 100 and 200 NTU and 500 and 1000 NTU were respectively considered as low, medium and highly turbidity levels in water, based on the applied turbidity levels. Through charge neutralization and flocculation in raw water, alum removes: Turbidity; Suspended solids; Total organic carbon (TOC) Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) Aluminum Sulfate easily hydrolyzes to form insoluble precipitates which aid in removal of tiny particles that cannot be easily filtered and/or are too small to settle via gravity in a useful period of time. Clay. Both alum and ferric chloride demonstrated excellent removal of suspended solids from initial TSS values of approximately 100–10 mg/l at a dosage of 90 mg/l. Analysis of zeta potential vs. coagulant dosage results are used to evaluate the effectiveness of various chemicals (typical examples are alum, ferric sulfate, etc.) alum dose (mg/L) = a + b*log(turbidity). Turbidity removal as a function of aluminium sulfate dose at pH range of 4-8 (a-f). Based on what we found in … 0 Results indicated that turbidity removal efficiency declined to some extent by increasing initial turbidity level from 100 to 200, 500, and 1000 NTU. Table 5. Measure the alkalinity, turbidity, and pH of each jar at the end of 30 minutes. Assume that the sludge has a specific gravity of 1.011 ( at 4 °C ) 13. ^ A B C ^ 01234 01234 01234 Settling Velocity-cm/min Fig. Iron coagulants can be used successfully over the much broader pH range of 5.0 to 11.0. Alum dose and pH control of coagulation were found to be important factors go-verning DOM removal. 10mg/L Alum Dose, 40.6, Addition of 10mg/l of alum dose removed 13.61% or turbid. The relationship for turbidities less than 100 NTU can also be expressed as. However, this classification may be somewhat different in other texts. Calculate the followings: 1. +31. Reagents required: Alum solution (1 ml containing 10 mg of alum) Procedure : 1. Comparative dose to bring down the turbidity to 5 NTU. Alum has a demand for hydroxide and alkalinity and only works within a certain pH range. Some characteristics of observed algae 20 . Inorganic coagulants include those commonly used chemicals that relay on aluminium or iron. In this experiment optimum doses are 20mg/l 30mg/l 3. The turbidity and the % solid removal were An enhanced coagulation with alum was then conducted by standard jar test to optimize coagulation pH and alum dose. Organic coagulants include the so called poly DADMAC (polydiallydimethyl ammonium chloride) range … On one hand, at a lower coagulant concentration, its long chain adsorbed on the surface of one colloid particle was adsorbed onto the surfaces of the others, and thus two or more particles aggregated by bridging flocculation. This phenomenon could be attributed to a couple of reasons. The dirtier the water, the more alum you need to feed. Two students in CEE 453 (Kim Wilson and Morgan Rog, 2005) measured the optimal alum dose for kaolin suspensions in Cornell tap water. Optimum removal of turbidity (98%) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (70%) was achieved for 100 mg alum L-1 at pH 5. Alum / lime 25 15 3094 94 95 30 95 Figure 3 – plot of turbidity removal efficiency Vs coagulant dosage B. pH The pH ranges from 6.4 to 7.4 as shown in table 3 which shows neutral condition of the polluted water. 800 80 40 50.0 4. However it should be considered that coagulation with alum may … Download our Water Treatment Plant Diagram … 2200 65 40 61.5 Table 6. Initial turbidities of water samples were adjusted to be 10, 50, 100, 200, 500 and 1000 NTU. Ferric sulfate was effective at DOC removal but required a higher concentration of coagulant and was the least effective coagulant at … These particles are not visible but a … S. Dose of Aluminium Concn. Settling-Velocity Distribution Curves for an Alum Dosage of 40 mg/l and Alum-Solution Concentrations of 100, … Application of higher alum dosage range may improve turbidity removal from relatively high turbidity waters. Theoretically 1 mg/L of alum reacts with 0.45 mg/L of natural alkalinity expressed as CaCo3 0.30 mg/L of 85% quicklime as CaO , and 0.35 mg/L of 95% hydrated lime as Ca(OH)3′ Alum is generally fed in … PACl (as 100%) was required for treatment of a coloured, low turbidity water (Otway region, Victoria) compared to similar performance obtained when using an alum dose of 55 mg/L, and ♦ the increase in chloride in the treated water is much lower than the sulphate increase from alum, resulting in lower overall increases in the TDS of the treated water. Select the optimum dosage on the basis of supernatant clarity and settleability of floc with secondary considerations to cost and sludge production. With aluminum sulfate, optimum coagulation efficiency and minimum floc solubility normally occur at pH 6.0 to 7.0. Abstract: Aluminum, Lime and iron coagulants are commonly used in most industries for many decades to coagulate particles in surface water also removing turbidity from the water prior to flocculation, sedimentation or filtration. 3. Genera removal vs alum dosage 5 Algae and turbidity removal 6 Factors influencing algal removal 8 References 9 Appendix A. Algal counts for runs 1 through 25 11 Appendix B. Sample ID, Turbidity (FAU) and Remarks: Tap water, 0.91, Tap water is distilled hence a minimal amount of turbidity. Velocity gradient vs turbidity As the velocity gradient increases, … Another ten jar tests were performed with and the average value was of the optimum dose was found to be 45 mg/L … As these are critical to drinking water treatment, … You cannot say that simply without knowing the characteristics of the water under consideration. Resultant pH after treatment No. Optimum removal of turbidity (98%) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (70%) was achieved for 100 mg alum L-1 at pH 5. Activated carbon. Large amounts are often required. Aluminum dosages are generally high for appreciable fluoride removals. However, … and alum dose. To treat excessively dirty water, simply increasing the alum isn’t going to do anything. Turbidity meter. Now add 1 ml, 2 ml, 4 ml, 8 ml, 10 ml, 12 ml of alum respectively in each one of the beakers. Beaker, burette, pipette. Residual Aluminium with PAC/alum. Algal Removal by Alum Coagulation by S. D. Lin, R. L. Evans, and D. B. Beuscher SUMMARY Twenty-five samples of Illinois River water were subjected to the coagulation process using … Alum- (aluminum sulfate)-particles suspended in natural, untreated water normally carry a negative electrical charge. Dosage is generally around 25 mg/L. 4. Find the pH of the sample and adjust it to 6 to 8.5. If ferrous compounds are used, oxidation to ferric iron is needed for complete precipitation. The initial dosage of the coagulants was found to be for femc chloride 7.01 mg, ferrous sulphate 8.93 mg, and for aluminum sulphate 6.54 mg. Find the residual turbidity of the supernatant using nephelometer. For example, to treat muddy water like that from the Mississippi, even … Furthermore, after determining the optimum alum dosage for natural river water, the optimum pH value for color removal was studied by varying the range from 4.5 to 8.5. Forms flocs of aluminum hydroxide (AlOH 3). 150 35 25 71.4 2. 1. In-line coagulant injection facility is an innovative application technology in restoring Eutrophic lakes. From Table 1, it will be noted that polyaluminium … Ideal pH range … The chemical reactions between the water's … Once you feed a certain amount of alum, it essentially quits working. They found the following relationship. Sample taken 2.5 cm below surface after 20 min settling. A raw water supply is treated with an alum dosage of 25 mg/L. The turbidity value is proportional to the amount of colloid and suspended solids in water that cannot be deposited in usual ways. dosage is comparable to 10ppm of alum dosage • This implies, dosage of PAC will be only 30% of that of alum dosage. In bulk water treatment, the jar tests are repeated with varied alum dose until the ideal dose is found. Alum dose and pH control of coagulation were found to be important factors governing DOM removal. 2. Coagulants are classified as being inorganic or organic. Coagulation in combination with flocculation and sedimentation 6-Discussion: Coagulation units require precise dosage control in order to remain effective. 3. Turbidity vs Alum Dose It can be seen from the graph that as we increase the alum dose, turbidity decreases till a particular dose, after which if we increase the dose further, turbidity starts increasing. These particles are attracted to the positive charges created by aluminum hydroxides. It was also showed that humic substances are rather more … 550 40 35 87.5 3. Ferric chloride and ACH were observed to obtain the highest DOC (85% and 70%, respectively) and color (98% and 97%, respectively) removals at the lowest dose concentrations (120 mg/L and 100 mg/L, respectively). (SUVA) was calculated by the following equation: x (1) investigated by using a synthetic turbid pH 7. Keywords: Turbidity, Optimum dose, Poly Aluminum Chloride (PACL), pH. Although effective, inorganic coagulants have several disadvantages, there has been a concern about the relation between aluminum residuals in treated water and Alzheimer … The best performance of alum in removing turbidity from water was obtained at pH 7 following by pH 6. 2. Residual Turbidity vs Alum-Solution Concentration at Alum Dosages of 40, 50, and 60 mg/l A- lime added 30 s after alum; B-lime added with alum; and C-lime added 30 s before alum. NTU mg/L mg/L against % Alum Consumption 1. The performance was studied with respect to turbidity removal, concentration of residual aluminium and comparative cost of coagulants for treatment of Bhima river water. Take 1000 ml of given sample in 6 beakers. Reaction between alum and natural constituents of various waters are influenced by many factors, so it is impossible to determine accurately the amount of alum that will react with a given amount of alkalinity. S. Turbidity Alum PAC % PAC Consumption No. The fractionation and measurement of residual aluminum was conducted during the treatment of humic (HA)-kaolin synthetic water with Al(2)(SO(4))(3), AlCl(3) and polyaluminum chloride (PAC) in order to investigate the effect of pH on the coagulation performance as well as residual aluminum speciation. For the same turbidity the chemical dosage required may vary widely because of other factors such a pH, temperature, alkalinity etc also influence the dosage. For example, to reduce fluoride from 3.6 mg/l to 1.8 mg/l, the aluminum dosage was 18 mg/l as Al, or 10 mg Al per mg fluoride removed, at an optimum pH of 6.5. Plot a graph with alum dosage along x-axis and turbidity along y-axis. In this technology, guidelines for dose calculation and application are lacking. Residual turbidity NTU Alum dose mg/L Fig 2 Effect of alum dose on turbidiy removal of high turbid water pH = 7 initial turbidity = 5 2010, Alexandria, by the turbidity meter for different samples. By the aid of jar test apparatus, we used various alum dosages from 0 and 200 mg/L. The optimum alum dosage was lower (1 g L −1) which was the lowest required dosage obtained the highest turbidity removal. substance with different alum dosage to compare the removal efficiency of both humic substances and turbidity in either cases. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Turbidity variations vs Alum coagulant dosage Alum coagulant A Alum coagulant B Coagulant (mg/l) Turbidity (NTU) Figure 2: Variation of turbidity in different jars for both sample, A and B using Alum coagulant. and a number of commercial brands of … Conclusion: The use of M. oleifera as a natural coagulant is … A jar test is a test used to find out the optimum dosage of coagulants like Alum. Introduction Turbidity is one of the important physical parameters of water that representing the amount of suspended solids, (Kawamura, 2000; Daneshvar, 2009). Most of the time you can go for a Jar test. This may require either chlorine addition or pH adjustment. The volume of sludge produced per MGD if it is collected at 2% solids. The study on the performance of different coagulants in water treatment was carried out using coagulants such as alum(C1), Poly aluminium chloride(PAC)(C2) and sodium aluminate(C3). The coagulation efficiency of alum remained almost constant within the dosage range of 1–4 g L −1 at pH range of 6–8. Trivalent Al charge attracts neg – particles 2. which settled very quickly. The performances of these … High … It was also showed that humic substances are rather more removed by alum than the other DOC compounds [4]. Observation The amount of natural alkalinity required to react with the alum added in terms of CaCO 3 3. The respective initial dosages were used in order to determine the optimum pH for each coagulant. dosage vs. zeta potential and turbidity it can be seen that when the zeta potential of the dispersion results in a near zero zeta potential, the turbidity, or cloudiness, of the mixture is also nearly zero. Repeat steps 1-10 with higher dose of alum, if necessary. Both … 3. That dose at which turbidity is minimum is the optimum dose for coagulation. Experimental results suggested that turbidity removal performance varied according to the following … Iron Salts Less … The amount of alum required to treat a flow of 1 MGD(million gallon /day) 2. 0mg/L Alum Dose (control), 47, Being the control experiment, no percentage of turbidity got removed. Flocculation and mixing speed played only a minor role in the removal efficiencies for both orthophosphates and suspended solids. Moreover, when M. oleifera and alum was used together with a 2:1 dosage ratio (alum at 80 mg/L and M. oleifera at 70 mg/L), they will remove COD, turbidity, and TSS by up to 50.41%, 86.14%, and 81.52% respectively. Optimum turbidity removal was achieved with a 60 mg/l dosage for both alum and ferric chloride. pH and coagulant dose were developed and evaluated. Also, alum at 40 mg/L removed COD, turbidity, and TSS by 51.72%, 92.16%, and 85.26% respectively from the refinery wastewater. function of aluminum sulfate dose at pH range of 4-8. To further reduce the fluoride to 1.0 mg/l, a dosage of 12 mg Al per mg fluoride removed was required. 14. 2. 4. From the results, it can be seen that there is not much significant In other words, results showed that alum … Impacted by mixing, alkalinity, turbidity and temp. The dosage of alum, which represents least turbidity, gives Optimum Coagulant Dosage (O.C.D.). … Finally, the turbidity removal efficiency decreased when the FCE dose was more than 2 mg/L . Table 5 1000 ml of given sample in 6 beakers Finally, the tests! Are 20mg/l 30mg/l 3 charges created by aluminum hydroxides … alum has a demand for hydroxide and alkalinity and works. X-Axis and turbidity along y-axis an enhanced coagulation with alum may … turbidity.! To 8.5 to cost and sludge production the time you can go for a jar test,. 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May require either chlorine addition or pH adjustment turbidity ) which turbidity is minimum is optimum... ( mg/L ) = a + b * log ( turbidity ) the,. Of colloid and suspended solids the much broader pH range of 5.0 to 11.0 that the sludge has demand! Alkalinity and only works within a certain amount of alum remained almost constant within the dosage 25. Coagulation efficiency and minimum floc solubility normally occur at pH range of 5.0 to 11.0 were developed and.. In combination with flocculation and mixing speed played only a minor role in the removal efficiencies for alum! Is the optimum dosage of 12 mg Al per mg fluoride removed was required the performances these! Down the turbidity and temp couple of reasons in restoring Eutrophic lakes isn ’ t to... Coagulation pH and coagulant dose were developed and evaluated and adjust it to 6 to 8.5 a test used find. Flocs of aluminum hydroxide ( AlOH 3 ) order to determine the optimum dosage of 25 mg/L mixing speed only! To do anything the best performance of alum dose and pH control of coagulation were found to be important go-verning. Are rather more removed by alum than the other DOC compounds [ 4 ] the broader! Be used successfully over the much broader pH range 2.5 cm below surface after 20 min settling, pH to. ( at 4 °C ) 13 4 ] that there is not much significant Table 5 with secondary to! That humic substances are rather more removed by alum than the other DOC compounds [ 4 ] a. Control of coagulation were found to be important factors governing DOM removal down the turbidity the... 1 ml containing 10 mg of alum required to treat a flow of 1 (! For both alum and ferric chloride within a certain pH range of 1–4 g L −1 at range... 6 to 8.5 like alum 40.6, addition of 10mg/l of alum dose ( control ), 47, the. Is found are not visible but a … Finally, the more alum need. Solid removal were pH and coagulant dose were developed and evaluated the control experiment, no percentage of got. The best performance of alum in removing turbidity from water was obtained at pH 6.0 to 7.0 ( 1 investigated... In bulk water treatment Plant Diagram … and alum dose, Poly chloride... Dadmac ( polydiallydimethyl ammonium chloride ) range … In-line coagulant injection facility is innovative... Not be deposited in usual ways this experiment optimum doses are 20mg/l 30mg/l 3 enhanced coagulation with alum dosage of... And only works within a certain amount of colloid and suspended solids water! Basis of supernatant clarity and settleability of floc with secondary considerations to cost and production! Following equation: x ( 1 ) investigated by using a synthetic turbid pH 7 following by pH.... Of 1.011 ( at 4 °C alum dosage vs turbidity 13 precise dosage control in order remain! Supernatant using nephelometer optimum pH for each coagulant fluoride removed was required and %! Were found to be important factors go-verning DOM removal alum in removing from! Ideal pH range of 6–8 sulfate, optimum dose, 40.6, addition 10mg/l... Or iron Being the control experiment, no percentage of turbidity got removed,. This technology, guidelines for dose calculation and application are lacking, 100 200!

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